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    INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE


    Course title

    Civic Education  and democracy in Georgia - the challenges and ways of development

    Authors/ Instructors

    Shorena Maglakelidze, Sopho Lobzhanidze,  Davit Malazonia, Tamar Taliashvili, Ketevan Chkuaseli, Tina Gelashvili, Tinatin Mepharishvili, Madona Mikeladze, Tama Mosiashvili

    Course status/ level

    Bachelor, MA

    Course code

    Teaching Semester

    OPEN for Georgian Institutions to Decide: ONE SEMESTER COURSE

    ECTS

    6

    Course Rationale

    The course envisages improvement of the principles and practices of civic education and democracy in the higher education institutions of Georgia.

    The Goal:

    1. Students will get acquainted with the global challenges of Civic Education and Democracy, and the range of possible measures to resolve them and to recognize the goals of sustainable development in the context of Georgia.

    2. Students will analyze activities conducted with the aims of developing Civic Education and Democracy and evaluate the effectiveness of best practices compared to other countries.

    3. Students will recognize their professional and personal role in raising public awareness of civic education and formation of democratic values.

    4. Within the scope of civic education and the problems of democracy they will be able to design and conduct the implementation, evaluation of and research into the results.

    5. Within the frame of their competencies and action plans, students will be able to raise public awareness of civic education and the enhancement of the democratic values.


    Course Objectives

    To become acquainted with the global challenges of Civic Education and cultivating the values of democracy, and the measures taken to resolve these alongside recognizing the goals of sustainable development in the context of Georgia and how these might be effectively implemented and evaluated.

    1. To analyze activities which have been conducted for the goals of Civic Education and Democracy development, and to evaluate the effectiveness best practice compared to other countries.

    2. To become better acquainted with the global challenges of Civic Education and Democracy, and the measures taken to resolve them and also to recognize the goals of sustainable development in the context of Georgia.

    3. To recognize their professional and personal roles and responsibilities in raising public awareness of civic education and the formation of democratic values.

    4. Within the scope of civic education and the problems of democracy, to be able to plan and conduct research into effective implementation, and to evaluate the results.

    5. Within the frame of their competence and action plans, to be able to raise public awareness of civic education and enhancement of the democratic values.

    6. Students will be able to identify the problems of identifying specific foci for research.

    7. Students will be able to identify relevant research methods, to collect data, in whatever form, quantitative or qualitative, and to analyse and develop recommendations.

    Pre-Requisites

    None

    Learning Outcomes



    Be acquainted with the global challenges of Civic Education and Democracy, and the measures taken to resolve them and to recognize the goals of sustainable development in the context of Georgia.

    1. To analyze activities which have been conducted in relation to the goals of Civic Education and Democracy development and to evaluate effectiveness of best practice compared in other countries.

    2. To become acquainted with the global challenges of Civic Education and Democracy, and the measures taken to resolve them and to recognize the goals of sustainable development in the context of Georgia.

    3. To recognize their professional and personal role in public awareness of civic education and formation of democratic values.

    4. Within the scope of the civic education and the problems of democracy to be able to conduct the planning of research, its implementation, and evaluation of the results.

    5. Within the frame of their competences and action plan be able to raise public awareness of civic education and enhancement of the democratic values.

    6. Students will be able to identify the problems of specific areas to which research could illuminate.

    7. Students will be able to identify relevant research methods, to collect data, to make analyses and to develop recommendations.

    Teaching Methods

     The lectures and seminars will be built on the principles of interactive teaching.

    The main methodological approach of the course is problem-oriented learning. The following basic methods will be used:

    1. Class discussion conducted by Lecture

    2. Debate on current issues by students

    3. Group Presentations by students

    4. Student reports by individuals

    5. Group works

    6. Role play

    7. Case study

    8. Feedback methods

    Assessment  and

    Course Requirements

     In seminars student's groups will present their interim reports, as well as make and receive feedback from peers and from staff; and on the basis of this will amend and current their work for any final report.

    Activity – 30

    First Midterm assessment – 20

    Second Midterm assessment – 20

    Presentation - 30

    GRADING SCALE

    The scores will be calculated according to the following:

    (A) 91-100 Superior

    (B) 81-90 Good

    (C) 71-80 Above Average

    (D) 61-70 Average

    (E) 51-60  Below Average

    (FX) 41-50 Failing

    (F) 0-40 Withdrawal from course


    Week № and Lesson Activity

    You should write 6 Units at the most

    Each Unit has to include  at least two topics

    Each Unit should include the following: Topic of Lesson

    Topic Rationale and Objectives

    Learning Outcomes





    • View only 'Topic 2'

      Unit #1: The main trends of democracy and civil society development


      Week 1

      Unit 1. The main trends of democracy and civil society development

      TOPIC  1 State  and society;  Natural rights,   the public contract; People's sovereignty; Principles of separation of powers.

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The issue that students should be getting acquainted with relate to the principles of the origins and purpose of the state, of society and state interaction, modeling good and democratic principles for organizing government.

      ·       Students will become conscious of how the essence of the state and forms of its organization can be developed to enhance democratic principles and practice.

      Learning Outcomes:   

      - Be aware of  the characteristics of various formats of the state and are able to describe the social and political functions of human beings, in the light of democratic principles.

      - Be aware of international  and national documents in the field of the  Principles of separation of powers.

      - Be aware of the rights, obligations and responsibilities of notions of the People's sovereignty.

      Compulsory Literature:

      1. Borus, c. Rukhadze, Z. Kvachadze, m. Gaprindashvili, L. Izoria, l. 2011. Red. Miminoshvili, Z. Democracy and citizenship. Tbilisi: The Foundation for Electoral Systems in Georgia

      2. Development of civil society in Georgia Achievements and Challenges. Gia Nodia. Tb. 2007.

      Supporting Literature

      1. Begiashvili m. Bostoghanashvili d. Lezhava D. Losaberidze d. Mklavishvili m. Nozadze G. 2007. Democracy upper transitional period and Active Citizenship (Training Materials) Tbilisi.

      2. „ Civil society: Comparative Analyze“. Course of Lectures. Marina Muskhelishvili. Tbilisi 2006.

      3. Gogodze. Shatberashvili. 2010. Multilevel Innovation Policy and European Integration, Tbilisi: Association "European Studies for Innovative Development of Georgia".

      Week 2

      TOPIC  2: Political regimes and citizenship.

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The issue is to acquaint students with and enable them to study the characteristics of various political regimes (democratic, authoritarian and totalitarian; participative and representative democracy), and desired human civic actions in terms of democratic characteristics and functions (In governance, the economy, litigation, culture) and to become acquainted with concepts of power (The Scope and Limits of Freedom).

      Students will consider perspectives on the realization of human rights and engagement in more democratic political regimes.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will be able to explain the basic characteristics of political regimes and describe the scope of  civic organization and human action in building more democratic communities

      - Become aware of the rights, obligations and responsibilities of citizens.

      Compulsory Literature

      1     A hybrid political regime between democracy and authoritarianism. Conceptual problems. Tb .2015

      2.      Types of political systems. http://www.socium.ge/downloads/politikurisociologia/politikur-sistemata-tipebi.pdf

      Supporting Literature:   

      1. Begiashvili m. Bostoghanashvili d. Lezhava D. Losaberidze d. Mklavishvili m. Nozadze G. 2007. Democracy upper transitional period and Active Citizenship (Training Materials) Tbilisi.

      2. „Civil society: Comparative Analyze“. Course of Lectures. Marina Muskhelishvili. Tbilisi 2006.




    • View only 'Topic 3'

      Unit #2: Human rights, their protection mechanism and the establishment of civil society


      Week 3

      Unit 2. Human rights, their protection: mechanisms within and the establishment of an effective civil society

      TOPIC  1 :  The Genesis of Human Rights

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The issue is to enable students to become acquainted with issues of human rights, their social roots and objectives.

      ·  Students will realize that human rights are part of broader humanitarian and socio-cultural development, over millennia, and remains at the center of political, legal, ethical, religious and philosophical thinking as well as practice.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will be able to analyze human rights issues in different epochs  and their particular characteristics within the modern period, including in relation to building more democratized societies.

      - Become aware of the establishment of civil society, and how this can be strengthened


      Compulsory Literature :

      1. Human Rights, Liberty Institute, Tbilisi, 2007

      2. Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights (EDC / HRE) http://www.coe.int/t/dgap/tbilisi/index0ae0_ge.asp (28.11.2012)

      Supporting Literature:

      1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Konstantin Korkelia, Irine Kurdadze - International Human Rights Law according to the European Convention on Human Rights.

      2. Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/1208370

      Week 4

      TOPIC  2 :  International Standards of Protecting and Enhancing Human Rights Protection

      The issue will enable students to become familiar with the functioning of human rights institutions and legislation within the UN, the Council of Europe and the European Union.

      ·     Students will realize the role and importance of international institutions in terms of human rights protection.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will be able to discuss the rights and responsibilities of institutions such as the UN and Council of Europe in the process of human rights protection.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will be able to analyze human rights issues in different epochs  and their particular characteristics within the modern period, including in relation to building more democratized societies.

      - Become aware of the establishment of civil society, and how this can be strengthened

      Compulsory Literature :

      1. International Standards of Human Rights Protection, 2014 Georgian Reforms Association - GRASS.

      2. Konstantin Korkelia (Red)International Standards of Human Rights Protection and Georgia,Tbilissi, 2011,-

      3. Lashkhia, m. - Human Rights: Genesis, Value and Present, 2011

      Supporting Literature


      1. Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/1208370


      Week 5

      TOPIC  3:  National Strategy for Human Rights:

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The issue here will be to consider the introduction of The National Strategy of Human Rights and relevant priorities of governments towards students.

      ·     Students will realize that human rights protection in Georgia is based on constitutional and international standards, principles and norms. Its amendment will be developed based on international standards.

      Learning Outcomes:   

      - Students will be able to discuss human rights protection and enhancement, and the best  mechanisms to achieve this and how to assess their effectiveness



      Compulsory Literature :   

      1.   National Strategy of Human Rights of Georgia, for 2014 -2020 years, Decision of the Parliament of Georgia

      Supporting Literature:  

      1. The Government of Georgia Action Plan (2016-2017), Georgian government; Resolution No. 338, 21 July 2016

      2. Report of the Government of Georgia in 2014-2020 By 2017, with the introduction of the National human defense Program, the following is prepared by Magi Nicholson.

      Week 6

      TOPIC  4:  Civil society formation in Georgia - trends and concepts

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The issue will be to enable students to be familiar with the process of formation of civil society in Georgia and the factors that shape this with reference to democratic values and practices.

       

      Students will recognize the characteristics of healthy civil society, its political, socio-economic and cultural bases and development trends.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students can discuss and evaluate the factors, challenges and developmental trends that constitute healthy civil society formation in Georgia; and describe the mechanisms for the healthy functioning of civil society and its characteristics.

      Compulsory Literature:

      1. Gia Nodia, Civil Society Development in Georgia: Achievements and Challenges

      2.EU Strategy for Cooperation with Civil Society, Date of Approval: 21 July 2014

      Supporting Literature:  

      1. EU Strategy for Cooperation with Georgian Civil Society 2014 - 2017 Approved by the Embassies of the EU Delegation and EU Member States Date of Approval: 21 July 2014


    • View only 'Topic 4'

      Unit #3:Democracy and active citizenship


      Week 7

      Unit 3. Democracy and active citizenship

      TOPIC  1: The essence of democracy, democratic principles and desirable development trends

      Rationale and Objectives:

      Students will become acquainted with the essential principles and norms of democracy; and the Prospects for the development of democratic society in Georgia.   

      Students will understand the basic principles of democracy and realize how much democracy is a developing process, and why.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will discuss the advantages of democratic systems, alongside the problems of establishing democracy and their prospects in Georgia; they will be able to describe and analyze the political, social, economic and cultural environment for the development of a healthy democracy

      Compulsory Literature:   

      1.   Constitution and Democracy, Tbilisi 2014.

      2.   Golbio R, Hudleston T, Krapper P, Rowe D, Taalman W. 2009. Life in a democratic society. Ed. Natsvlishvili, N. Tbilisi: Teacher Professional Development Center.

      Supporting Literature:  

      1. Malkhaz Begiashvili, David Bostoghanashvili, Diana Lezhava and others. Transitional period and active citizenship on Democracy, - Tb., 2007

      2.  "Democracy and Citizenship" Assessment Report Grier Borous 2013

      Week 8

      TOPIC  2: Civil society and democratic citizenship

      Introducing the concepts of civil society and democratic citizenship for students; Discussion of issues about civil society and democratic citizenship in Georgia, in the context of international practice.

      Students will realize the importance of particular processes within civil society, for wider democratic development of Georgia; They will obtain knowledge of the factors involved and tools for promoting democratic citizenship.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will understand the factors and peculiarities of the development of civil society and democratic citizenship in Georgia; Georgia's relevant practice will be discussed

      Compulsory Literature:

      1. Constitution and democracy, Tbilisi 2014.

      2.Golbio R, Hudleston T, Krapper P, Rowe D, Taalman W. 2009. Life in a democratic society. Ed. Natsvlishvili, N. Tbilisi: Teacher Professional Development Center.

      Supporting Literature:   

      1.Malkhaz Begiashvili, David Bostoghanashvili, Diana Lezhava and others. Transitional period and active citizenship on Democracy, - Tb., 2007

      2. G. Borous, G. Rukhadze, Z. Kvachadze, m. Gaprindashvili, L. Izoria, l. 2011. Red. Miminoshvili, Z. Democracy and citizenship. Tbilisi: Electoral Systems Foundation Representation in Georgia

      3. Beselia N. Bokeria N. Kordzadze str. 2011. How to become an Active Citizen (Teacher's Book) Tbilisi: Publishing House of Bakur Sulakauri.



    • View only 'Topic 5'

      Unit #4: Education and democratic citizenship


      Week 9

      Unit 4. Education and democratic citizenship

      TOPIC  1: Education and democratic citizenship

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The unit enables students to become acquainted with the document adopted by the Council of Europe - "New Model of Competences for Democratic Culture"

      Students will understand the essence (structure, content, purpose) of civic competence and realize the actual and potential role of schools and other educational institutions in the formation and development of democratic civic competences among students.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will appreciate the main objectives and focus of the "New Model of Competence of Democratic Culture" and the Prospects of Realization of this in the Georgian Education Area.

      Compulsory Literature :

      1. "New Model of Competences for Democratic Culture". The Council of Europe. 2017

      2. Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights (EDC/HRE) http://www.coe.int/t/dgap/tbilisi/index0ae0_ge.asp (28.11.2012)

      Supporting Literature:

      1  . Natsvlishvili. Ed. 2009. What should each teacher do to facilitate the teaching of civil education and human rights: the framework of teachers' competences; Tbilisi: Teacher Professional Development Center.

      2.      Vinnyderen, p. Yong, ch. Pot, b. Kupatadze, h. Civil education (Methodical guide for teachers) .2010.

      3.      Golbauer, Hudstenit, Kripp, Rowe, Tselmanuu. 2009. Life in a democratic society. Ed. Natsvlishvili, N. Tbilisi: Teacher Professional Development Center.

      4.      Gakheladze, George. Civic upbringing - the main purpose of general education http://mastsavlebeli.ge/index.php?action=page&p_id=7&npid=14&id=93

      5.      Beselia N. Bokeria N. Kordzadze str. 2011. How to become an Active Citizen (Teacher's Book) Tbilisi: Publishing House of Bakur Sulakauri.   

      Week 10

      TOPIC  2: International and national policy documents for   democratic citizenship.

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The topic will enable students to become acquainted with international and national policy documents ("Council of Europe Charter on Democratic Citizenship Education and Human Rights", "National Education for General Education", "National Curriculum", "Law of Georgia on General Education" etc.) which are creating a theoretical and practical normative basis for democratic citizenship.

      Students will develop their competence and understanding of democratic citizenship, through engagement with international and national policy documents and an appreciation of the scope and challenges of their realization.

      Learning Outcomes:   

      - Students will develop their visions and evaluate how well “democratic citizenship competencies” have been articulated in international and national educational policy documents. .



      Compulsory Literature

      1. The Council of Europe Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education

      2.       National Curriculum of Georgia

      (2011-2016), http://mes.gov.ge/~mesgov/content.php?id=3923&lang=geo

      3.       National Goals of General Education of Georgia

      (2004), http://www.mes.gov.ge/old/index.php?module=text&link_id=196

      4.       Law of Georgia on General Education (2005). www.parliament.ge

      Supporting Literature:

      1. Vinnyderen, p. Yong, ch. Pot, b. Kupatadze, h. Civic education (Methodological guide for teachers).2010.

      2.      Goglichidze a. 2011. Participation in the school self-government (Stident's book) Tbilisi: Publishing House Bakur Sulakauri.

      3.      Golbauer, Hudstenit, Kripp, Rowe, Tselmanuu. 2009. Life in a democratic society. Ed. Natsvlishvili, N. Tbilisi: Teacher Professional Development Center.

      4.      Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights (EDC/HRE) http://www.coe.int/t/dgap/tbilisi/index0ae0_ge.asp (28.11.2012)

      Week 11


      TOPIC  3: Global challenges of democratic citizenship and sustainable development goals in the educational sphere of Georgia.

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The focus is one of considering the determination of democratic citizenship and pedagogical practice (classroom, school or non-formal) for students and teachers, in shaping democratic sensibilities and practices.

      The main aim is the creation and modeling of the best pedagogical practice based on the competencies of democratic citizenship, and an understanding of the relationship between theory and practice.

      Learning Outcomes:  

      - Students will be able to evaluate the standards of pedagogical practices (classroom, school, informal education) based on specific competencies for democratic citizenship and will agree strategies can be improved.




      Compulsory Literature:

      1. "New Model of Competences for Democratic Culture". The Council of Europe. 2017

      2.       Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education (EDC/HRE) http://www.coe.int/t/dgap/tbilisi/index0ae0_ge.asp (28.11.2012)

      Supporting Literature:   

      1. Natsvlishvili N. Ed. 2009. What should each teacher do to facilitate the teaching of civil education and human rights: the framework of teachers' competences; Tbilisi: Teacher Professional Development Center.

      2. Goglichidze. 2011. Participation in the school self-government (pupil's book) Tbilisi: Publishing House Bakur Sulakauri.

      3. Golby, Hudstenit, Kripp, Rove, Tale Manu. 2009. Life in a democratic society. Ed. Natsvlishvili, N. Tbilisi: Teacher Professional Development Center.

      4. Beselia N. Bokeria N. Kordzadze str. 2011. How to become an Active Citizen (Teacher's Book) Tbilisi: Publishing House of Bakur Sulakauri.

      5. Angest, D. Pharar, M. Muna, a. Rothmund, A. Ed. A. Rothmund, A. 2004. Domino (a publication how to use peer education in combating racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance). The Council of Europe.   


    • View only 'Topic 6'

      Unit #5: The role of civil organizations in raising civic awareness in Georgia


      Week  12

      Unit 5. The role of civil organizations in raising civic awareness in Georgia

      TOPIC  1: Structure, goals and activities of public organizations

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The focus is one of cultivating an acquaintance and deepening knowledge of a range of organizations and activities for the enhancement of a democratic culture (research centers, service oriented organizations, advocacy, youth organizations, volunteering, etc.).

         

      Establishing Capacity to Cooperate with CSOs.

      Learning Outcomes:   

      - Students will be able to determine the interaction between CSO activities and an organization's mission, and to evaluate the accountability and transparency of the tools used by the organization to develop and integrate its practices.


      Compulsory Literature

      1. EU Road Maps for Collaboration with Civil Society 2014 - 2017 Manual, Retrieved from http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/georgia/documents/civil_society_library/eu_roadmap_georgia.pdf

      2. Tamar Mosiashvili, (2016) School and EU Road Map, Journal "Teacher" Retrieved from http://mastsavlebeli.ge/?p=10298 .

      3. AUGUR (2012) Challenges for Europe in the world in 2030, Retrieved from http://www.augurproject.eu/IMG/pdf/cso_note_provisional_draft5_june_2012.pdf

      Week 13

      TOPIC  2: Role Strengthening Instruments for Social Organizations: Teaching Through Public Activities

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The focus is to enable students to become acquainted with the four-step model of teaching for students by civic   activities.

      Students will plan their activities in educational institutions and consider the scale and significance of desirable social change.

      Learning Outcomes:   

      Students will be able to plan youth groups activities which will be organized by them, and or by educational institutions.



      Compulsory Literature

      1. Tamar Mosiashvili, (2016) teaching public work. Retrieved from http://mastsavlebeli.ge/?p=12113



    • View only 'Topic 7'

      Unit 6#: The role of civic education in the 21st century environmental sustainable development challenges


      Week 14

      Unit 6. The role of civic education in 21st century environmental and sustainable development challenges


      TOPIC  1: The concept of sustainable environmental  development

      Students will engage with concepts of sustainable environmental development, international and national environmental legislation, and challenges facing Georgia in this regard.

      Students will study: sustainable development of international and   local programs; International and national policy towards environmental protection;

      Learning Outcomes:   

      - Students will be able to determine the importance of natural resources in human existence; They will be enabled to  discuss the tendencies of natural resource reduction and its causes; They will be familiar with issues of diversity in environmental degradation processes and about global and national food safety issues.


      Compulsory Literature

      1. New Sustainable Development Agenda, Leaving No One Behind; 2015

      2. http://www.ungeorgia.ge/eng/sutainable_development_goals#.WOqSbPkrLIU

      3. Sustainable agricultural development for food security. FAO REPORT) 2016;  http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5795e.pdf

      4. Food and Agriculture Organization, The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2014. http://www.fao.org/3/ai4030e.pdf

      5. International Food Policy Research Institute, Global Hunger Index, 2014. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ghi14.pdf

      Supporting Literature:   

      1. European Commission, Science for Environment Policy: Climate Change to Shift Global Spread & Quality of Agriculture Land, 2015. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/climate_change_to_shift_global_spread_q uality_agricultural_land_403na1_en.pdf

      2. The Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Food Security & Sociopolitical Stability, 2013. http://www.wilsoncenter.org/event/food-security-and-sociopolitical-stability

      3.   Emmy Simmons, Harvesting Peace: Food Security, Conflict & Cooperation, 2013. http://wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/HarvestingPeace.pdf

      Week  15

      TOPIC  2: The role of civil education in maintaining sustainable environment

      Rationale and Objectives:

      The focus is to enable students to be acquainted with the importance of civic education in the sustainable development of the environment (economic, social, ecological).

      To appreciate the challenges of developing civil activity in ways that encourage the sustainable development of the environment.    

      The main goal is one of students connecting the development of competencies in democratic citizenship to the objectives of the International Environmental and National Policy Documents for Sustainable Development; and to consider the knowledge and capacities needed for their realization.

      Learning Outcomes:

      - Students will be to articulate  their assumptions about the sustainable development of the environment; they will able to discuss, interrogate and explore the role of civil involvement in sustainable development of natural resources and for poverty reduction.

      Compulsory Literature

      1. A New Rural Development Paradigm for the 21st Century; Development Centre Studies; A TOOLKIT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES © OECD 2016

      2. The Substantive Democracy: Role of Civil Society Karnataka1 Shareena Banu C, P. Research Scholar at the Centre for the Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

      3. dministration Planning: An Exploration of Social Justice, Equity, and Citizen Inclusion; Administrative Theory & Praxis Vol. 29, No. 3, 2007:

      Supporting Literature

      1.  https://emergency.cdc.gov/training/

      2. http://www-ns.iaea.org/downloads/iec/er-training-booklet.pdf

      3. http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_a/popups/mod01t05s01.html

      4. http://www.esdtoolkit.org/discussion/default.htm